Opportunities and Challenges for CO2 Cross-Border Transportation in ASEAN to Advance CCS Towards a Net Zero Future

21 May 2024


Most ASEAN countries have not yet established CCS specific legal and regulatory frameworks. This shortcoming is due to common themes and shared challenges across the region, which include:

  • Challenges in enacting national policies for emission reductions as a policy enablers for CCS.
  • Limited development of CCS-specific law and regulation across the region.
  • Uncertainty regarding the administration of CCS operations in some jurisdictions.


Advancing CCS and CO2 cross-border transport in ASEAN is a complex but essential task. To effectively approach this, we can consider the following strategic actions among others:

  • Integration of CCS technology in National Climate Policy and Long-term Energy Roadmaps
  • Formulation of dedicated regulation on CCS including Monitoring/Measurement, Reporting & Verification (MRV) following the closure of the project
  • Formulation of CCS-specific incentive policies
  • Establishing a public database of storage-related seismic and well data
  • Secure funding and investments, and establish a business model for the project
  • International collaboration to facilitate technology transfer, attract investments, and provide models for regulatory frameworks.
  • Given the necessity of transboundary transportation of CO2, the need for regulations, agreements and arrangement among nations pertaining to carbon accounting, liabilities, and compliance with the London Protocol (where relevant) is also critical.



Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Energy Policy, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam


ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) and Japan Organization for Metals and Energy Security (JOGMEC)

Related Publication