Variable Renewable Energy, Smart Microgrid, and Electric Vehicle Integration in Southeast Asia

21 June 2022

In this report

Energy security, accessibility, affordability, and sustainability are of utmost importance. To address these issues, the ASEAN Member States has developed the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation 2016-2025 to serve as the blueprint for enhancing energy connectivity and market integration in ASEAN. Among the main topics of interest is the role of variable renewable energy (vRE), electric vehicle (EV), and smart microgrid in transitioning the current energy landscape to a more sustainable and intelligent energy system.

This study, which focused on vRE (i.e., solar and wind), EV, and microgrid, aims to assist ASEAN in kickstarting smart microgrid project implementation. Among the key task of this study includes:

  1. Study of existing policies and targets of microgrid, EV, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and their integration at global and ASEAN level
  2. Selection of potential actions to be implemented for the vRE-Smart Microgrid-EV integration framework
  3. Identification of strategic area for vRE – Smart Microgrid – EV Integration system implementation
  4. Formulation of the modelling framework for Smart Microgrid Planning and its corresponding analysis
  5. Review of vRE-Smart Microgrid-EV integration concept
  6. EV benchmarking

Overall, it is identified that solar plays an important role and is a preferred energy source as solar PV technology is now more economical than wind. The optimal model reveals up to 30% solar-based energy of total electricity demand. It is limited due to the high cost of the energy storage system, as higher integration of vRE will demand more extensive energy storage for load balancing. Adaptation of V2G is highly recommended as a substitute for needing a large capacity of energy storage as the battery available in EV(s) can contribute to peak shaving. It is also found that about 25% of the energy storage capacity of an EV is required to meet the average travelling demand, indicating a high possibility for EV owners to partake in V2G.

The development of this report was supported by the Energy Foundation China (EFC) through the project “ACE-EFC Joint Studies on COVID-19 Impact on Energy Sector Development and Variable Renewable Energy – Smart Microgrid – Electric Vehicle Integration”.



Renewable Energy


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE)

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