Biomass Co-Firing in ASEAN: Status and Opportunities to Meeting ASEAN's RE Target

12 June 2023


  • ASEAN’s power sector is projected to remain dependent on fossil fuels, particularly coal, for some time yet. Unfortunately, however, of all the power generation fuels, coal emits the highest CO2 emissions.
  • Biomass co-firing has several advantages for the ASEAN Member States (AMS). It would greatly assist the AMS in meeting its target to increase the share of renewable energy (RE) in the region’s total primary energy supply (TPES) to 23%, and the share of RE in the region’s total installed power capacity to 35% by 2025. It would also reduce emissions, enhance ASEAN energy security, benefit economic development, and make use of otherwise unused agricultural waste.
  • Among the AMS, Indonesia is regarded as the leading member with respect to implementing biomass co-firing, with a total commercialised capacity of 7.3 GW.
  • There are several barriers in implementing biomass co-firing in ASEAN, the main ones being lack of regulations and incentives.
  • Several recommendations are provided to assist the AMS successfully implement biomass co-firing: carry out capacity building across the AMS and beyond, standardise of biomass specification, increase collaboration with industries, fund further R&D, establish a biomass database and mapping system, and establish supportive policies.



Coal and Clean Coal Technology


Suwanto, Jonathan Tjioe, Beni Suryadi

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