APAEC is the regional blueprint for the energy sector in the framework of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) implementation. Being the blueprint of the energy cooperation in the region, APAEC plays a vital role in setting a sustainable future of ASEAN energy landscape. Therefore, it is critical to develop the document with regional consensus in order to have it translated into national policies and plans.
ASEAN recognises the critical role of an efficient, reliable and resilient electricity infrastructure in stimulating regional economic growth and development. To meet the growing electricity demand, huge investments in power generation capacity will be required. In recognising the potential advantages to be gained from the establishment of integrated systems, ASEAN established the electricity interconnecting arrangements within the region through the APG under the ASEAN Vision 2020 adopted in the Second ASEAN Informal Summit in Kuala Lumpur on 15 December 1997.
HAPUA (Heads of ASEAN Power Utilities/Authorities), as SEB (Specialised Energy Body), is tasked to ensure regional energy security by promoting the efficient utilisation and sharing of resources. The construction of the APG is first done on cross-border bilateral terms, then expanded to a sub-regional basis and finally to a total integrated regional system. It is expected to enhance electricity trade across borders which would provide benefits to meet the rising electricity demand and improve access to energy services in the region.
The Specialised Energy Body (SEB) in-charge for this program area is the Head of ASEAN Power Utilities/Authorities (HAPUA). Visit the HAPUA Secretariat website.
The other major infrastructure project conceived as part of the ASEAN Vision 2020 is the TAGP. The TAGP aims to interconnect existing and planned gas pipeline infrastructure within ASEAN, to transport gas across borders to ensure greater security of gas supply. The ASCOPE (ASEAN Council on Petroleum), is responsible for the effective implementation of the TAGP Project through multiple physical pipeline interconnections and regasification terminals (RGT).
During the 20th AMEM on 5 July 2002 in Bali, Indonesia, the Ministers signed the ASEAN MoU on the TAGP Project. The MoU sets out the cooperative framework for greater public-private partnership and collaboration in the implementation of TAGP. Under the TAGP MoU, ASEAN countries should study the regulatory and institutional frameworks for cross-border supply, transportation, and distribution of natural gas in the region involving multilateral countries.
The Specialised Energy Body (SEB) in-charge for this program area is the ASCOPE. Visit the ASCOPE website.
The ASEAN Coal Sub-sector Network was transformed into the ASEAN Forum on Coal (AFOC) in 1999 with the objective, among others, to promote ASEAN cooperation in the coal sector and to promote intra-ASEAN business opportunities on coal.
Recognising that coal is a major fuel source for power generation in the region, total coal production and utilisation has risen as shown in Figure 6. In 2013, electricity produced from coal was 258 TWh or around 31% of the total power generation, a steady increase from 27% in 2010.This increasing trend indicates that coal is expected to generate more electricity than other fuel sources for the foreseeable future.
AFOC is responsible for promoting the development and utilisation of clean coal technologies and facilitating intra-ASEAN coal trade towards enhancing regional energy security and sustainable development.
In addition, AFOC is tasked to promote ASEAN cooperation in the coal sector as well as promoting intra-ASEAN business opportunities towards enhancing regional energy security while addressing environmental issues through clean coal technology.
Energy efficiency, viewed as the most cost-effective way of enhancing energy security and in addressing climate change and promoting competitiveness, has been successfully implemented in ASEAN since the establishment of the ASEAN Energy cooperation initiative in 1986. To address the limited global reserve of fossil fuels and volatile energy prices, the AMS have been following a deliberate policy of diversifying and using energy sources efficiently. The EE&C-SSN is responsible for the coordination of ASEAN’s collective efforts on energy efficiency towards its target of reduction in energy intensity.
To address the challenges of sustainable energy growth and climate change, the AMS have been following a deliberate policy of diversifying and using indigenous energy sources efficiently at the national level. To this end, the AMS have developed and implemented several renewable energy initiatives, such as biofuels, solar PV programmes, as well as promoting open trade, facilitation and cooperation in the renewable energy sector. The AMS deployment of renewable energy technologies was initially based on policies to reduce oil consumption but later included policies to mitigate environmental impacts of fossil fuel use, including the potential effects of climate change. The RE-SSN is responsible for carrying out the implementation of renewable energy programmes to increase the diversity of energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of energy use in the region.
Energy policy and planning in ASEAN has been developed individually by the AMS given that they are at different stages of development. That said, the level of integration in energy policy and planning in ASEAN is still nascent among the AMS and much needs to be done to raise the expertise in this area.
Civilian nuclear energy, as a clean source of energy can help ASEAN meet its growing energy demand in the region. As a number of the AMS have considered to embark on nuclear energy for power generation as an option, the Nuclear Energy Cooperation Sub-sector Network (NEC-SSN) was established in 2008 as the responsible specialised energy body to shepherd ASEAN-wide cooperation and facilitate information sharing and exchange, technical assistance, networking and training on the use of nuclear energy for power generation purposes.